Development of a Processes of Change Measure for use in Applied Sport Psychology Settings
William Massey, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, USA
Theme: Research design (methodology, analyses)
Poster Number: 67
Program ID: POS-1
Presentation: October 3, 2013 5:30 pm - 7:00 pm
The results of previous research (e.g., Leffingwell, et al., 2001; Massey et al., 2011) have led scholars to conclude that the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) may be an appropriate paradigm to study readiness to change in sport psychology settings. However, processes of change – a critical element to the TTM – have yet to be studied or measured. As such, the purpose of the current investigation was to initially develop and examine a measure of the processes of change for use in applied sport psychology settings. Informed by relevant literature, an initial pool of 114 items was generated. Content validity was established by consensus agreement of three judges with expertise in elite sport performance. In an effort to test the psychometric properties of the measure, data were then collected from two independent samples. Participants included NCAA Division I athletes, professional athletes, and athletes training for or competing in the Olympic Games (n1 = 201; n2 = 358). In sample one, exploratory structural equation modeling yielded a 7-factor solution (Chi-square = 117.719, p = .0029; CFI = .973; TLI = .942; RMSEA = .043). In sample two, a CFA was used to cross-validate the model structure found in sample one (Chi-square = 372.588, p > .001; CFI = .949; TLI = .937; RMSEA = .043). Model-based reliability coefficients were calculated using standardized estimates with five of the seven sub-scales showing sufficient reliability (omega = 0.74 – 0.85) . The new measure demonstrated construct validity with a modified version of the Processes of Exercise Change questionnaire (Marcus et al., 1992). Results of this exploratory study provide a starting point to begin measuring processes of change. Future studies should examine whether TTM constructs can be measured reliably in an athletic population in an effort to create stage-based mental skills training interventions.