PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN YOUTH SPORT: POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT AS PREDICTORS OF PERFECTIONISM, ANXIETY, AND ENJOYMENT
Taryn Brandt, ASPIRE Sport and Performance Psychology LLC, USA
Theme: Youth sport
Poster Number: 146
Program ID: POS-2
Presentation: October 4, 2013 5:30 pm - 7:00 pm
ABSTRACT Parent-child interaction is very much related to sport performance and achievement. Prior research has shown that stress (Jellineck & Durant, 2004), higher drop-out rates (Gould, Feltz, & Weiss, 1985), and increased anxiety (Anderson, Funk, Elliot, & Smith, 2003) are among common responses when athletes perceive their parents to be pressuring and directive. On the other hand, positive parental involvement and support can be related to young athletes’ enjoyment (Power & Woolger, 1994; Brustad, 1993; Leff & Hoyle, 1995). The purpose of the current study was to examine whether the negative dimensions of parental involvement, specifically directive behavior and pressure, predicted an athlete’s perfectionism and anxiety. The relationship between positive parental involvement, specifically active involvement, praise, and understanding, and enjoyment was also examined. The Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, Sport Competitive Anxiety Test, Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire, and two questions addressing sport specific enjoyment were used. A total of 47 participants between the ages of 12 and 18 competing at the regional through international levels were recruited from various figure skating training centers. The results illustrate that parental directive behavior and pressure significantly predict an elite athlete’s high level of perfectionism. Similarly, directive behavior, pressure, and perfectionism are statistically significant predictors of a figure skater’s competitive anxiety. Statistical positive correlations show that there is a relationship between directive behavior and pressure and both perfectionism and anxiety. Positive parental involvement, as measured by active involvement, praise, and understanding, does not appear to be a strong predictor of enjoyment, however, directive behavior, pressure, anxiety, and perfectionism do not predict and are not related to an athlete’s enjoyment. Future research may be utilized to further examine the relationship between negative parental involvement and its relationship with perfectionism and fear of failure, as these traits may be harmful to young athletes’ performance, development, and well-being.