It Takes Overtime: The Role of Motivational Styles in the Success of a Collegiate Hockey Mental Toughness Intervention.

Tyler Masters, Eastern Illinois University, USA
Damon Burton, University of Idaho, USA

Theme: Mental training/interventions

Poster Number: 44

Program ID: POS-1

Presentation: October 3, 2013 5:30 pm - 7:00 pm

Room: Napoleon


Mental toughness (MT) is a concept that is popular in applied sport settings, particularly as a key factor in the athletes’ success (Connaughton, Hanton, & Jones, 2010). The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effectiveness of a multifaceted mental toughness (MT) intervention on a variety of psychological and performance variables, particularly emphasizing the role of motivational styles (MS) in overall intervention success. Due to the extended season length and the highly competitive nature of Division I hockey, ample opportunities are available to examine athletes’ MT. A working model of mental toughness development (WMMTD) guided this intervention with a group of semi-elite Division I hockey players (N=17) from a highly competitive hockey conference. The WMMTD focuses on the promotion of a sport-mindset through the implementation of a mental tools and skills driven intervention as key antecedents to promoting MT behavior. Additionally, the WMMTD also emphasized general and sport well-being as potential facilitating factors in the promotion of mental toughness. The eight-month, season-long intervention included a series of team and individual consulting sessions aimed at developing MT behaviors. Results from the intervention found significant positive correlations between, MS, MT, self-confidence and optimism. Also, during analysis of intervention effectiveness, cluster analysis identified four blended motivational style (MS) groups including positively motivated (PM), low self-doubt (LSD), dysfunctional (DF), and high doubt (HD) groupings. MANOVA, and follow-up ANOVA findings, indicated significant differences between blended MS groups on MT, self-confidence, optimism, and satisfaction with life. These findings suggest that MS plays a central role in the promotion of MT behaviors. Additionally, optimism appears to be a contributing factor to the promotion of MT. This investigation provides preliminary support for the utilization of the WMMTD as a potential model for development of MT behaviors.

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