Examining a model of career advancement of female and male assistant coaches
Moe Machida, Osaka University of Sport and Exercise, Japan
Program ID: LEC-13B
Presentation: October 5, 2013 11:30 am - 12:30 pm
Scholars claim that women’s lower intention to advance their career may be contributing to their limited representation in coaching (e.g., Cunningham et al., 2003). Informed by past literature (e.g., DeRue & Wellman, 2009) and theories (Bandura, 1997; Van Velsor et al., 2010), the present study aimed to (a) examine the influences of a wide array of antecedents (i.e., leader competency, motivation to lead, leader self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, developmental challenges and head coach professional support, learning orientation, work-family and family-work conflicts, and gender discrimination) on assistant coaches’ intentions to advance their career, and (b) investigate possible gender differences. Participants were 673 assistant coaches who coach collegiate women’s teams and 245 of their head coaches. Structural equation models were tested with the whole sample of assistant coaches (N = 673). Then, using composite scores of the factors confirmed, we conducted path analyses with the sub-sample of assistant coaches who had head coaches’ evaluations of assistant coaches’ leader competency (n = 245). Multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) models and multiple group analyses were conducted to examine gender differences. The results showed that leader self-efficacy and outcome expectancy were positively related to career intention through their effects on motivation to lead. Learning orientation was positively related to engagement in developmental challenges and head coach professional support, which were positively related to leader self-efficacy. In addition, family-work conflict was negatively related to motivation to lead, while gender discrimination was negatively related to outcome expectancy, which in turn was related to motivation to lead. The results also suggest possible gender differences in the roles of the factors examined; although women had higher outcome expectancy and motivation to lead, they reported lower career intention, leader self-efficacy, and developmental challenges than men. The findings implicate the ways in which women and men’s careers in coaching can be facilitated.