Developing self-efficacy through Simulation and Observation deliberate practice: case-study of a mogul skier
Daphne Laurin-Landry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Canada
Theme: Developmental/lifespan perspectives
Program ID: LEC-12B
Presentation: October 5, 2013 8:15 am - 9:30 am
Introduction: Deliberate practice is designed to improve the current performance of an individual by focusing on critical ability (Ericsson, Krampe & Tesch-Römer, 1993). Performance is also correlated to self-efficacy (Moritz, Feltz, Fahrbach & Mack, 2000). This case-study aims to present one mogul skier’s self-efficacy growth across his athletic development and through deliberate practice. Method: A Qualitative and retrospective semi-directive in depth interview with one Canadian mogul’s skier and world cup medalist. The interview focused on the parameters (What, When, Who, Why, Where and How) of his deliberate practices at every stage of his mogul skiing development. Results: He created two types of deliberate practices that allowed him to develop his self-efficacy: "Simulation" (imagery, moving an object that represents oneself, free skiing and trampoline) and "Observation" (watching video of oneself or others and observing live teammates or world cup skier). Theses deliberate practices evolved with his sport participation development (Côté, 1999). During the Sampling Years, he observed the best to learn their technique. During the Specializing years, he would simulate his observation to increase his performance and competence. During the Investment Years, he used only imagery to consolidate his self-efficacy. Implication: This case-study illustrates that deliberate practices are good tools for practitioners to develop an athlete’s self-efficacy. Observing the best in the sport from the beginning of one’s sport career allows the athlete to create an ideal of which ability is required to attain the highest level of achievement in that sport. These observations empower the athlete to simulate the technical aspects observed that characterize expertise in the sport. When the athlete is one of the best in his sport, he maintains his self-efficacy by «visualizing success scenarios that provide positive guides for performance» (Bandura, 1997, p.116). Thus, the athlete develops continuously his beliefs in his capabilities to perform (Bandura, 1997).