AASP Grant Program
2012-2013 AASP Research Grants
Megan Sawyer & Thomas Raedeke, East Carolina University
Project MENTOR: Mentors for Exercise and Nutrition Treatment for Overweight Reduction
Stephen Gonzalez & Maria Newton, University of Utah
The Effect of Failure on Physiological Stress, Emotion, and Performance in High and Low Resilient Athletes
Jeffrey Pauline, Syracuse University
Increasing Stair Usage in a University Residential Complex
Nick Galli, Justine Reel, Hester Henderson, & Nicole Miller, University of Utah
A Qualitative Examination of Body Image Disturbances among Athletes with Disabilities
Christopher Mesagno & Denise Hill, University of Ballarat
Investigating pre- and post-shot routines to improve sport performance (under pressure)
Kristen Gierut & Daniel Kirschenbaum, Argosy University
The Healthy Obession Model: A Qualitative Evaluation of Highly Successful Weight Control by Formerly Obese Adolescents
Michelle Bartlett & Mitch Abrams,WTAMU
The State Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2: Normative Data for a College Student-Athlete Population
2011-2012 AASP Outreach Grants
Pediodized Mental Skills Training for High School Athletes
Erin Beskid & Dr. Mark Aoyagi
The purpose of the programming at Ski & Snowboard Club Vail during the 2011-2012 season was to serve the athletes, parents and coaches using a periodized Mental Skills Training program as well as parent and coach education sessions and a support group for injured athletes. The goal was to serve 40 high school athletes with the summer program and 225 throughout the winter season. The Athletic Coping Skills Inventory (ACSI-28) was used to assess the Mental Skills Training program. During the 2011-2012 season mental skills training programs were carried out to both the summer and seasonal groups serving all the populations intended. Each group received age appropriate mental skills training on a weekly basis from about mid November to March. A Peak Performance coach accompanied the high school aged teams on the snow weekly. Two parent education sessions were held on positive parenting. These were well received as evidenced by question and conversation after each session by the parents and the request for more presentaions a parent support group by the club's Human Performance Director. Support sessions for injured athletes were held from December through April again with the intentions of continuing the following season. Coach education was not carred out due to lack of staff and time after proper resources were devoted to the previously mentioned projects. The use of the ACSI-28 was altered slightly as the competition season began. It was used on the high school athletes to determine how those athletes who received the periodized traning from the summer and fall compared to those who received blocked mental skills training in the fall and winter due to their availability. Overall there was no improvement in either group or significance between the groups. A limiting factor may be the time of season the assessments were given (the preseason being more relaxed; post season being more influenced by season results and emotions). Additonally, as an athelete's understanding of the terms change and their ability to reflect grows, their views of the ACSI categories may also change influenceing results.
A major apsect of the Community Outreach Grant is sustainability of the project once the funding has ended. First Ski & Snowboard Club Vail has continued to support a Peak Performance Coacch on staff to the lead the program. Additionally they are offering a ski pass, SSCV clothing and lunch to interns to commit to a season of volunterring in the Peak Performance Department. The main way in which they helped the program to continue is through the time they are giving the Peak Performance staff to work work with athletes. This year they have given weekly time starting in September for all 250 academy kids compared to last year where only the high school (100) began at this time, resulting in triple the amount of direct contact with the athletes.
Teaching Coaches to Teach and Employ Mental Skills
Joan Duda, Mark Holland, Jennifer Cumming, & Lee-Ann Sharp
Our community outreach project aimed to develop methods to train rugby union coaches how to effectively teach and employ mental skills. The specific objectives were to:
1) Work with the Scottish Rugby Unions (SRU) Coach Development Team to identify a feasible and effective way to embed mental skills training (MST) into existing coach education.
2) Develop and evaluate a practical and interactive MST component within the existing coach education program, including educational materials.
The Coach Education Program
25 coaches of the U16 national pathway program were invited to join a pilot coach MST program (mean age 34.2 yrs, male = 21).
With the SRU a four-session program was developed. Each session contained discussions, games, practical examples, and follow-up resources. The session was collaboratively lead by a member of the University of Birmingham (UoB) and a SRU coach educator who received specific training. This allowed for greater integration of the program with the current coach education and should facilitate ongoing support from existing networks.
The four sessions included
Aimed to introduce coaches to the program.
1.) Understanding what the coaches want from a program.
2.) Determining with coaches the mental skills to focus on during the program.
3.) Identification of, and planning for, the coaches perceived barriers.
The mental skills
Aimed to ensure that coaches had a clear and simple idea of what they wanted to achieve through MST.
1.) Introduce an easily understandable conceptualisation of the mental skills.
2.) Discuss the definition and value of targeted mental skills.
The mental techniques
Aimed to introduce mental techniques that can be used to regulate the mental skills.
1.) Discuss current practices, best practices, and specific practical examples.
Application of MST
Aimed to ensure that coaches were confident to apply MST within their current practices.
1.) Current session plans are adapted to include MST.
2.) Specific scenarios are discussed.
3.) Introduce the practical coaching resource.
Needs Analysis Evaluation
Throughout the program practical limitations hampered many coaches engagement (e.g., times and locations suitable for all coaches). This prompted a revision of the evaluation. An open ended questionnaire was developed to investigate the coaches use of MST, what mental characteristics they desired in players, what content and resources they find most useful and what barriers they perceive towards MST.
With the SRU, a practical coaching resource was developed (see attachment). The resource drew from existing training resources to include drills with practical examples of how to incorporate effective MST.
Throughout this project, the first of its kind for the SRU, we have had to develop the program to work within the existing coach education structure. Many barriers have been overcome which has provided valuable knowledge for their future programs.
The UoB and the SRU aim to continue their exceptional collaborative relationship with future development of the coach education program. This opportunity for sustainability has been made possible by the current grant.
An abstract, based on the current project, will be submitted at the AASP conference in 201.
Exercise and Psychology Well-Being Among Older Adults: A Community Outreach Program
Edson Medeiros Filho & Itay Basevitch, Gershon Tenebaum, Katy Tran, Courtney Collins, Karin Jeffery, & Oscar Gutierrez
Over the past year we have led the community outreach program herein described. The project was developed and implemented in collaboration with the Tallahassee Senior Center. Twenty older adults (i.e., citizens over 55; M = 11, F = 9) participating in the table tennis team benefited from the outreach program. Furthermore, two health coordinators participated in the planning, execution and evaluation of the program, in an attempt to increase the sustainability of the program within the community.
The general purpose of the community outreach project was to educate the older adult members of the Tallahassee Senior Center on psychological skills aimed to enhance their well-being and exercise adherence. The specific aims included:
(a) Explanation of the benefits of psychological skill training in the development of life skills, exercise adherence, and sport performance.
(b) Presentation of goal setting skills and strategies aimed at educating participants about effective goal setting skills promoting motivation, autonomy and commitment related behaviors towards exercise and physical activity.
(c) An educational workshop designed to minimize self-presentation concerns and promote an informed approach to the aging process.
(d) Applied intervention and consultation for participants in the Tallahassee Senior Games focused on essential mental skills (e.g., imagery, self-talk and arousal regulation) related to optimal performance in the sport domain.
(e) Use of technology equipment (e.g., video-based simulations and biofeedback) to assess and train perceptual-cognitive skills (e.g., situational assessment, anticipation and decision making).
Qualitative and quantitative feedback from participants, senior center staff members (e.g., instructors, health program coordinators), and AASP certified supervising mentors suggest that the program has helped the older adults to learn and implement mental skills linked to the promotion of physical activity and well-being. In particular, participants reported higher levels of satisfaction in relation to (a) the facilitators' knowledge and attitude, (b) relevance of topics covered, and (c) quality of the materials. Participants have also suggested an increment in the allocation of time for each session, thereby indirectly indicating that they were pleased with the sessions.
Perhaps most important, this experience expanded our understanding of human diversity while also allowing us to strengthen our knowledge of multicultural methods related to applied sport and exercise psychology. Finally, this outreaching experience has evolved a phenomenological model on the mental skills linked to successful performance and quality of life among older adults.
Implementing Brief Interventions with Runners: The Mankato Marathon Sport Psych Team
Based on social-cognitive theory as well as scholarship in the psychology of marathoning and peak performance in sport, we utilized a scientist-practitioner model when delivering The Mankato Marathon Sport Psych Team in October, 2011. Specifically, we provided brief interventions to runners at the Expo, before the marathon, and during the marathon. Giges and Petitpas (2000) described brief contact interventions as strategies that are active, goal oriented, time-limited, action oriented, warmly supportive, and present-focused. Our aims were to: 1) To help runners reach their potential by providing mental strategies and brief interventions before, during and after the Mankato Marathon, 2) To promote the awareness of the mental component of running and the field of sport and exercise psychology, and 3) To provide students and professionals with experience in delivering brief contact interventions to runners.
The social-cognitive theory provided the framework the 4-hour workshop for team members the day before the race, as well as the recommendations provided to the team members when working with runners. Following the organization of the successful Toronto Marathon Psyching Team, our intervention locations included three areas. First, we had a booth at the Expo the day before the marathon and provided mental tips. We walked around the Expo with signs that said, Come see us for a mental tip which allowed us to go to the runners and interact with them. We helped runners write a specific mantra, or a short, instructional phrase, for the race and then provided a flexible plastic wristband so they could write their mantra on it. Second, we were on bikes at the start of the race and during the race to impact as many runners as possible. On our bikes, we could provide runners with support and mental strategies during the marathon. Lastly, we were located at the finish line to help runners put their best spin on their performance. We helped runners talk through how the race went and adversity that experienced during the race.
Our work on the Sport Psych Team was successful. The Mankato Marathons facebook page was loaded with comments after the race about how the members of the team helped them especially in the final miles of the marathon. We provided a survey at the finish line for runners as well and their comments about the Team such as, Yes! The Sport Psych Team should be continued next year and The team was so helpful in the final miles and the signs were inspirational and funny. The Sport Psych Team was also featured on Southern Minnesotas news channel, KEYC, and a 2-page article of our work appeared in the Mankato Free Press. Along with the help of AASP, we also were able to secure a local sponsor so we could provide over 30 motivational signs along the course. Saying such as, Nothing is impossible. The word itself says Im possible as well as funny quotes such as Chuck Norris never ran a marathon.
We were asked to organize the team again during the 2012 Mankato Marathon, and the Mankato Marathon started a Think Right page to highlight our work: www.mankatomarathon.com/training-think.shtml. The Sport Psych Team also led to other presentations within our community and a growing awareness of the importance of sport psychology in our community.
We thank the Association for Applied Sport Psychology for their support and offering grants that impact communities such as ours!
2011-2012 AASP Research Grants
Melanie Adams & Diane Gill, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
On our feet: Using social cognitive theory to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity in overweight women
Mimi Ho, Jennifer Cumming, & Joan Duda, University of Birmingham
Examining the use of self-regulation strategies in perfectionistic and non-perfectionistic athletes with and without hearing impairments: A longitudinal study
Cindra Kamphoff, Minnesota State University, Mankato
The development and maintenance of mental toughness in elite marathoners
Helen O'Connor & Stephanie Hanrahan, University of Queensland
"Moving on up": Investigating the effects of a future-selves intervention in promoting physical activity in Africa
2010-2011 AASP Grants
John Gotwals & Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere, Lakehead University
‘Spirit of the Game’ and Positive Youth Development: Exploring the Perspectives of High Performance Youth Ultimate Frisbee Players
Jennifer Jordan Hamson-Utley & Rodney Hansen, Weber State University
Validating the Effectiveness of Psychological Interventions through Physiological Markers
Candace Hogue & Mary Fry, University of Kansas
Students' Salivary Stress Responses when Juggling in Two Distinct Motivational Climates
Robin Schroyer & Diane Whaley, University of Virginia
QuickStarters: A Peer Mentoring Program
Sarah Williams & Jennifer Cumming, University of Birmingham
Enhancing an Individual's Imagery Ability: Can Layering Images Facilitate Ease of Imaging? (PDF Document)
2009-2010 AASP Research Grants
Theresa Brown & Mary Fry, University of Kansas
Strong Girls Program
Eleanor Quested & Joan Duda, University of Birmingham
Motivational Determinants of Health-Related Immunological and Hormonal Responses of Elite Dancers
Dawn Lewis & David Kinnunen, CSU-Fresno
Validation of Three Quantitative Measures of the Sport Injury Domain: The Coaches’ Perspective
Emily Oliver & James Hardy, Bangor University
Effects of Self-Talk on Intrinsic Motivation
Robert Bell, Rob Nahlik, & Meghan Hallbrook, Ball State University
Utilizing Solution-Focused Guided Imagery for Golfers with the Yips
Sarah Skopek, American University, & Amanda Visek, George Washington University
Psychosocial Development in College Students: A Comparison between Athletes and Non-Athletes
Damien Clement & Vanessa Shannon, West Virginia University
Development and Evaluation of a Pilot Performance Enhancement Group (PEG) for Injured College Student Athletes at Two NCAA Institutions
John Lubker, West Texas A&M, Amanda Visek, George Washington University, & Jack Watson, West Virginia University
Qualities of Effective Sport Psychology Consultants: A Conjoint Analysis
2008 AASP Research Grants
Sean Mullen & Diane Whaley, University of Virginia
Explaining parents’ role in children’s physical activity.
Renee Mapes, University of Missouri
Athletes’ experiences of sport psychology consultation: Exploring a multiseason, cross-gender intervention.
Tiffanye Vargas-Tonsing, University of Texas-San Antonio
An examination of sport coaches’ perceptions of athletes exhibiting signs of ADHD and their perceived reactionary behavioral responses.
2007 AASP Research Grants
Todd Gilson & Deborah Feltz, Michigan State University
Self-efficacy effects on performance: A renewed debate
Megan Granquist & Diane Gill, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
The role of athlete hardiness and self-efficacy in predicting athletic injury rehabilitation adherence
Jennifer Thomas & Diane Gill, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
The effect of a preshot routine on competitive youth golf performance and the perceived benefits by participants
Penny McCullagh, CSU East Bay
Tracking the training and careers of advanced degree programs in sport psychology
Windee Weiss, University of Northern Iowa
Longitudinal analysis of gymnasts’ sport commitment: Exploring developmental differences, sport commitment types, and parental perceptions
Michael Sachs & Elizabeth Loughren, Temple University
Temple University web access linking Kinesiology and Imagery (TU WALKI)
Gretchen Kerr & Ashley Stirling, University of Toronto
How knowledgeable are sport psychology consultants about child protection in sport?
Trent Petrie, Christy Greenleaf, Jordan Hamson, & Scott Martin, University of North Texas
Physical fitness and its relation to mood, body image, self-concept, social pressures and internalization, teaching and weight bias in children